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Glossary of terms used on this site

Some Lynchburg, Virginia roofers prefer that their customers know as little as possible about their roofs. At All Seasons Metal Roofing, we are very open about the products and processes we use to design and install the very best roof for your home. Here are some terms and phrases you may hear when we discuss your roof replacement or repair project.

Term Definition
Asphalt Shingle

A bituminous waterproofing agent applied to roofing materials during manufacturing 

Built-up Roof

A flat or low-sloped roof consisting of multiple layers of asphalt and ply sheets 

Caulk

To fill a joint with mastic or asphalt cement to prevent leaks 

Coating

A layer of viscous asphalt applied to the base material into which granules or other surfacing is embedded 

Course

A row of shingles or roll roofing running the length of the roof

Cutout

The open portions of a strip shingle between the tabs 

Deck

The surface installed over the supporting framing members to which a roofing material is applied 

Dormer

A framed window unit projecting through the sloping plane of a roof

Downspout

A pipe for draining water from roof gutters; also called a leader

Drip edge

A non-corrosive, non-staining material used along the eaves and rakes to allow water run-off to drip clear of underlying construction 

Eaves

The horizontal, lower edges of a sloped roof

Edging strips

Boards nailed along eaves and rakes after cutting back existing wood shingles to provide secure edges for re-roofing with asphalt shingles 

Felt

Fibrous material saturated with asphalt and used as an underlayment or sheathing paper

Flashing

Pieces of galvanized metal (usually aluminum or copper) used to prevent seepage of water into a building around any intersection or projection in a roof, such as vent pipes, chimneys, adjoining walls, dormers and valleys

Free-tab shingles

Shingles that do not contain factory-applied strips or spots of self-sealing adhesive 

Gable

The upper portion of a sidewall that comes to a triangular point at the ridge of a sloping roof

Gambrel roof

A type of roof containing two sloping planes of different pitch on each side of the ridge. The lower plane has a steeper slope than the upper. Contains a gable at each end

Granules

Ceramic-coated colored crushed rock that is applied to the exposed surface of asphalt roofing products 

Gutter

The trough that channels water from the eaves to the downspouts 

Hip roof

A type of roof containing sloping planes of the same pitch on each of four sides 

Hip shingles

Shingles used to cover the inclined external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes 

Ice dam

Condition formed at the lower roof edge by the thawing and re-freezing of melted snow on the overhang. This can force water up and under shingles, resulting in leaks 

Interlocking shingles

Individual shingles that mechanically fasten to each other to provide wind resistance

Laminated shingles

Strip shingles containing more than one layer of tabs to create extra thickness. Also called three-dimensional shingles or architectural shingles 

Lap

To cover the surface of one shingles or roll with another

Lap cement

An asphalt-based cement used to adhere overlapping plies of roll roofing

Mansard roof

A type of roof containing two sloping planes of different pitch on each of four sides. The lower plane has a much steeper pitch than the upper, often approaching vertical. Contains no gables 

Mineral-surfaced roofing

Asphalt shingles and roll roofing that are covered with granules 

No-cutout shingles

Shingles consisting of a single, solid tab with no cutouts 

Overhang

That portion of the roof structure that extends beyond the exterior walls of a building 

Pitch

The degree of roof incline expressed as the ratio of the rise, in feet, to the span, in feet

Ply

The number of layers of roofing, i.e. one-ply, two-ply 

Rafter

The supporting framing member immediately beneath the deck, sloping from the ridge to the wall plate 

Rafter

The supporting framing member immediately beneath the deck, sloping from the ridge to the wall plate 

Rake

The inclined edge of a sloped roof over a wall 

Rake

The inclined edge of a sloped roof over a wall 

Ridge

The uppermost, horizontal external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes 

Ridge cap

Specially formed shingles used to cover the horizontal external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes 

Rise

The vertical distance from the eaves line to the ridge 

Roll roofing

Asphalt roofing products manufactured in roll form

Run

The horizontal distance from the eaves to a point directly under the ridge. One half the span 

Self-sealing shingles

Shingles containing factory-applied strips or spots of self-sealing adhesive 

Self-sealing strip or spot

Factory-applied adhesive that bonds shingle courses together when exposed to the heat of the sun after application 

Shading

Slight differences in shingle color that may occur as a result of normal manufacturing operations 

Sheathing

Exterior grade boards used as a roof deck material

Shed roof

A roof containing only one sloping plane. Has no hips, ridges, valleys or gables 

Slope

The degree of roof incline expressed as the ratio of the rise, in inches, to the run, in feet

Soffit

The finished underside of the eaves 

Span

The horizontal distance from eaves to eaves 

Square

A unit of roof measure covering 100 square feet. A roof with a field area of 2,500 square feet would be called a 25-square roof

Stack

A vent pipe that penetrates the roof

Starter strip

Asphalt roofing applied at the eaves that provide protection by filling in the spaces under the cutouts and joints of the first course of shingles 

Tab

The exposed portion of strip shingles defined by cutouts

Underlayment

Asphalt saturated felt used beneath roofing to provide additional protection for the deck 

Valley

The internal angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes 

Vent

Any outlet for air that protrudes through the roof deck such as a pipe or stack. Any device installed on the roof, gable or soffit for the purpose of ventilating the underside of the roof deck 

 

CONTACT US

Phone:
434-444-5713

Email:
allseasonsmetalroofing@yahoo.com

 

 

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Lynchburg, VA 24501

 

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